原住民族權利宣言

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聯合國大會2007年9月13日通過 [ENGLISH|英文]

 

大會,
秉承《聯合國憲章》的宗旨和原則以及履行各國根據《憲章》承擔的義務的誠意,

申明原住民族與所有其他民族平等,同時承認所有民族均有權有別於他人,有權自認有別於他人,並有權因有別於他人而受到尊重,

又申明所有民族都對構成全人類共同遺產的各種文明和文化的多樣性和豐富多彩做出貢獻,

還申明凡是基於或源於民族出身或種族、宗教、族裔或文化差異,鼓吹民族或個人優越的學說、政策和做法,都是種族主義的,科學上是謬誤的,法律上是無效的,道德上應受到譴責,且從社會角度來說是不公正的,

重申原住民族在行使其權利時,不應受到任何形式的歧視,

關注原住民族在歷史上因殖民統治和自己土地、領土和資源被剝奪等原因,受到不公正的對待,致使他們尤其無法按自己的需要和利益行使其發展權,

認識到亟需尊重和促進原住民族因其政治、經濟和社會結構及其文化、精神傳統、歷史和思想體系而擁有的固有權利,特別是對其土地、領土和資源的權利,

又認識到亟需尊重和促進在同各國訂立的條約、協定和其他建設性安排中得到確認的原住民族權利,

欣見原住民族正在為提高政治、經濟、社會和文化地位,為結束在任何地方發生的一切形式歧視和壓迫,自己組織起來,

深信由原住民族掌管對他們自己和對他們的土地、領土和資源產生影響的發展,將使他們能夠保持和加強他們的機構、文化和傳統,並根據自己的願望和需要促進自身發展,

認識到尊重原住民族知識、文化和傳統習慣,有助於實現可持續和公平的發展,並有助於妥善管理環境,

強調實現原住民族土地和領土非軍事化,有助於和平、經濟和社會進步與發展,有助於世界各國和各民族之間的相互瞭解和友好關係,

特別認識到原住民族家庭和社區有權以符合兒童權利的方式,保有共同養育、培養、教育子女和為子女謀幸福的責任,

認為各國與原住民族之間的條約、協定和其他建設性安排所確認的權利,在有些情況下,是國際關注和關心的問題,帶有國際責任和性質,

又認為此類條約、協定和其他建設性安排及其所代表的關係,是加強原住民族與各國之間夥伴關係的基礎,

認識到到《聯合國憲章》、《經濟、社會、文化權利國際公約》、《公民及政治權利國際公約》 及《維也納宣言和行動綱領》 都申明,所有民族享有自決權至關重要,根據此項權利,他們可自由決定自己的政治地位,自由謀求自身的經濟、社會和文化發展,

銘記本《宣言》的任何內容不得用來剝奪任何民族依照國際法行使的自決權,

深信本《宣言》確認原住民族的權利,會在公正、民主、尊重人權、不歧視和誠意等原則的基礎上,增進國家與原住民族之間的和諧與合作關係,

鼓勵各國與有關的原住民族協商和合作,遵守和切實履行國際文書、特別是與人權有關的文書為各國規定的所有適用於原住民族的義務,

強調聯合國在促進和保護原住民族權利方面應持續發揮重要的作用,

相信本《宣言》是在確認、促進和保護原住民族權利與自由方面,以及聯合國系統在這一領域開展有關活動方面,再次向前邁出的重要一步,

認識到並重申原住民有權不受歧視地享有國際法所確認的所有人權,原住民族擁有對本民族的生存、福祉和整體發展不可或缺的集體權利,

認識到原住民族的情況因區域和國家而異,應該考慮到國家和區域的特點和不同歷史文化背景,

莊嚴宣佈宣佈以下《聯合國原住民族權利宣言》,作為本著合作夥伴和相互尊重的精神爭取實現的共同目標:

 

第 1 條
原住民族,無論是集體還是個人,都有權充分享受《聯合國憲章》、《世界人權宣言》 和國際人權法所確認的所有人權和基本自由。

 

第 2 條
原住民族和個人享有自由,與所有其他民族和個人平等,有權在行使其權利時不受任何形式的歧視,特別是不受基於其原住民族出身或身份的歧視。

 

第 3 條
原住民族享有自決權。基於這一權利,他們可自由決定自己的政治地位,自由謀求自身的經濟、社會和文化發展。

 

第 4 條
原住民族行使其自決權時,在涉及其內部和地方事務的事項上,以及在如何籌集經費以行使自治職能的問題上,享有自主權或自治權。

 

第 5 條
原住民族有權維護和加強其特有的政治、法律、經濟、社會和文化機構,同時保有根據自己意願充分參與國家政治、經濟、社會和文化生活的權利。

 

第 6 條
每個原住民都有權擁有國籍。

 

第 7 條
1. 原住民享有生命權以及身心健全、人身自由和安全的權利。

2. 原住民族享有作為獨特民族,自由、和平、安全地生活的集體權利,不應遭受種族滅絕或任何其他暴力行為的侵害,包括強行將一個族群的兒童遷移到另一個族群。

 

第 8 條
1. 原住民族和個人享有不被強行同化或其文化被毀滅的權利。

2. 各國應提供有效機制,以防止和糾正:
(a) 任何旨在或實際上破壞他們作為獨特民族的完整性,或剝奪其文化價值或族裔特性的行動;
(b) 任何旨在或實際上剝奪他們土地、領土或資源的行動;
(c) 任何形式的旨在或實際上侵犯或損害他們權利的強制性人口遷移;
(d) 任何形式的強行同化或融合;
(e) 任何形式的旨在鼓動或煽動對他們實行種族或族裔歧視的宣傳。

 

第 9 條
原住民族和個人有權按照一個原住民族社區或民族的傳統和習俗,歸屬該社區或民族。此項權利的行使不得引起任何形式的歧視。

 

第 10 條
不得強迫原住民族遷離其土地或領土。如果未事先獲得有關原住民族的自由知情同意和商定公正和公平的賠償,並在可能時提供返回的選擇,則不得進行遷離。

 

第 11 條
1. 原住民族有權奉行和振興其文化傳統與習俗。這包括有權保持、保護和發展其文化過去、現在和未來的表現形式,如古跡和歷史遺址、手工藝品、圖案設計、典禮儀式、技術、視覺和表演藝術、文學作品等等。

2. 各國應通過與原住民族共同制定的有效機制,對未事先獲得他們自由知情同意,或在違反其法律、傳統和習俗的情況下拿走的原住民族文化、知識、宗教和精神財產,予以補償,包括歸還原物。

 

第 12 條
1. 原住民族有權展示、奉行、發展和傳授其精神和宗教傳統、習俗和禮儀,有權保持和保護其宗教和文化場所,並在保障私隱之下進出這些場所,有權使用和掌管其禮儀用具,有權把遺骨送回原籍。

2. 各國應通過與有關的原住民族共同制定的公平、透明和有效的機制,設法讓原住民族能夠使用或取得國家持有的禮儀用具和遺骨,並(或)將其送回原籍。

 

第 13 條
1. 原住民族有權振興、使用、發展和向後代傳授其歷史、語言、口述傳統、思想體系、書寫方式和文學作品,有權自行為社區、地方和個人取名並保有這些名字。

2. 各國應採取有效措施,確保此項權利得到保護,並確保原住民族在政治、法律和行政程式中能夠理解他人和被他人理解,必要時為此提供口譯或採取其他適當辦法。

 

第 14 條
1. 原住民族有權建立和掌管他們的教育制度和機構,以自己的語言和適合其文化教學方法的方式提供教育。

2. 原住民,特別是原住民族兒童,有權不受歧視地獲得國家提供的所有程度和形式的教育。

3. 各國應與原住民族共同採取有效措施,讓原住民,特別是原住民族兒童,包括生活在原住民族社區外的原住民,在可能的情況下,有機會獲得以自己的語言提供的有關自身文化的教育。

 

第 15 條
1. 原住民族有權維護其文化、傳統、歷史和願望的尊嚴和多樣性,他們的文化、傳統、歷史和願望應在教育和公共資訊中得到適當體現。

2. 各國應與有關的原住民族協商和合作,採取有效措施,消除偏見和歧視,促進原住民族與社會所有其他階層之間的寬容、瞭解和良好關係。

 

第 16 條
1. 原住民族有權建立自己的使用自己語言的媒體,有權不受歧視地利用所有形式的非原住民族媒體。

2. 各國應採取有效措施,確保國有媒體恰當地反映原住民族文化多樣性。各國應在不損害言論充分自由的情況下,鼓勵私有媒體充分反映原住民族文化的多樣性。

 

第 17 條
1. 原住民和原住民族有權充分享受適用的國際和國內勞工法所規定的所有權利。

2. 各國應與原住民族協商和合作,採取具體措施,不讓原住民族兒童遭受經濟剝削,不讓他們從事任何可能有危險性或妨礙他們接受教育,或有害他們的健康或身體、心理、精神、道德或社會成長的工作,要考慮到他們是特別脆弱的群體,而教育對於提高他們的能力至關重要。

3. 原住民享有在勞動條件以及特別是就業和薪水方面不受歧視的權利。

 

第 18 條
原住民族有權通過他們按自己的程式選出的代表,參與對事關自身權利的事務的決策,有權保持和發展自己的原住民決策機構。

 

第 19 條
各國在通過和實行可能影響到原住民族的立法或行政措施前,應本著誠意,通過原住民族自己的代表機構,與有關的原住民族協商和合作,事先征得他們的自由知情同意。

 

第 20 條
1. 原住民族有權保持和發展其政治、經濟和社會制度或機構,有權安穩地享用自己的謀生和發展手段,有權自由從事他們所有傳統的和其他經濟活動。

2. 被剝奪了謀生和發展手段的原住民族有權獲得公正和公平的補償。

 

第 21 條
1. 原住民族有權不受歧視地改善其經濟和社會狀況,尤其是在教育、就業、職業培訓和再培訓、住房、環境衛生、保健和社會保障等領域。

2. 各國應採取有效措施,並在適當情況下採取特別措施,確保原住民族的經濟和社會狀況持續得到改善。應特別關注原住民族老人、婦女、青年、兒童和殘疾人的權利和特殊需要。

 

第 22 條
1. 實施本《宣言》時,應特別關注原住民族老人、婦女、青年、兒童和殘疾人的權利和特殊需要。

2. 各國應與原住民族共同採取措施,確保原住民族婦女和兒童獲得充分的保護和保障,免受一切形式的暴力和歧視。

 

第 23 條
原住民族有權確定和制定行使其發展權的優先重點和戰略。特別是,原住民族有權積極參與制定和確定影響到他們的保健、住房方案及其他經濟和社會方案,並盡可能通過自己的機構管理這些方案。

 

第 24 條
1. 原住民族有權使用自己的傳統醫藥,有權保持自己的保健方法,包括保護他們必需的藥用植物、動物和礦物。原住民還有權不受任何歧視地享用所有社會和保健服務。

2. 原住民擁有享受能夠達到的最高標準身心健康的平等權 利。各國應採取必要步驟,使這一權利逐步得到充分實現。

 

第 25 條
原住民族有權保持和加強他們同他們傳統上擁有或以其他方式佔有和使用的土地、領土、水域、近海和其他資源之間的獨特精神聯繫,並在這方面繼續承擔他們對後代的責任。

 

第 26 條
1. 原住民族對他們傳統上擁有、佔有或以其他方式使用或獲得的土地、領土和資源擁有權利。

2. 原住民族有權擁有、使用、開發和控制因他們傳統上擁有或其他傳統上的佔有或使用而持有的,以及他們以其他方式獲得的土地、領土和資源。

3. 各國應在法律上承認和保護這些土地、領土和資源。這種承認應適當尊重有關原住民族的習俗、傳統和土地所有權制度。

 

第 27 條
各國應與有關的原住民族一起,在適當承認原住民族的法律、傳統、習俗和土地所有權制度的情況下,制定和採用公平、獨立、公正、公開和透明的程式,以確認和裁定原住民族對其土地、領土和資源,包括對他們傳統上擁有或以其他方式佔有或使用的土地、領土和資源的權利。原住民族應有權參與這一程式。

 

第 28 條
1. 原住民族傳統上擁有或以其他方式佔有或使用的土地、領土和資源,未事先獲得他們自由知情同意而被沒收、拿走、占有、使用或損壞的,有權獲得補償,方式可包括歸還原物,或在不可能這樣做時,獲得公正、公平、合理的賠償。

2. 除非有關的原住民族另外自由同意,賠償方式應為相同質量、大小和法律地位的土地、領土和資源,或金錢賠償,或其他適當補償。

 

第 29 條
1. 原住民族有權養護和保護其土地或領土和資源的環境和生產能力。各國應不加歧視地制定和執行援助原住民族進行這種養護和保護的方案。

2. 各國應採取有效措施,確保未事先獲得原住民族的自由知情同意,不得在其土地或領土上存放或處置危險物質。

3. 各國還應採取有效措施,根據需要,確保由受此種危險物質影響的原住民族制定和執行的旨在監測、保持和恢復原住民族健康的方案得到適當執行。

 

第 30 條
1. 不得在原住民族的土地或領土上進行軍事活動,除非是基於相關公共利益有理由這樣做,或經有關的原住民族自由同意,或應其要求這樣做。

2. 各國在使用原住民族的土地或領土進行軍事活動前,應通過適當程式,特別是通過其代表機構,與有關的原住民族進行有效協商。

 

第 31 條
1. 原住民族有權保持、掌管、保護和發展其文化遺產、傳統知識和傳統文化體現方式,以及其科學、技術和文化表現形式,包括人類和遺傳資源、種子、醫藥、關於動植物群特性的知識、口述傳統、文學作品、設計、體育和傳統遊戲、視覺和表演藝術。他們還有權保持、掌管、保護和發展自己對這些文化遺產、傳統知識和傳統文化體現方式的知識產權。

2. 各國應與原住民族共同採取有效措施,確認和保護這些權利的行使。

 

第 32 條
1. 原住民族有權確定和制定開發或利用其土地或領土和其他資源的優先重點和戰略。

2. 各國在批准任何影響到原住民族土地或領土和其他資源的專案,特別是開發、利用或開採礦物、水或其他資源的項目前,應本著誠意,通過有關的原住民族自己的代表機構,與原住民族協商和合作,征得他們的自由知情同意。

3. 各國應提供有效機制,為任何此類活動提供公正和公平的補償,並應採取適當措施,減少環境、經濟、社會、文化或精神方面的不利影響。

 

第 33 條
1. 原住民族有權按照其習俗和傳統,決定自己的身份或歸屬。這並不妨礙原住民獲得居住國公民資格的權利。

2. 原住民族有權按照自己的程式,決定其機構的構架和挑選這些機構的成員。

 

第 34 條
原住民族有權根據國際人權標準,促進、發展和保持其機構構架及其獨特的習俗、精神觀、傳統、程式、做法,以及原有的(如果有的話)司法制度或習慣。

 

第 35 條
原住民族有權決定個人對其社區應負的責任。

 

第 36 條
1. 原住民族,特別是被國際邊界分隔開的原住民族,有權與邊界另一邊的同民族人和其他民族的人保持和發展接觸、關係與合作,包括為精神、文化、政治、經濟和社會目的開展活動。

2. 各國應與原住民族協商和合作,採取有效措施,為行使這一權利並確保權利得到落實,提供方便。

 

第 37 條
1. 原住民族有權要求與各國或其繼承國訂立的條約、協定和其他建設性安排得到承認、遵守和執行,有權要求各國履行和尊重這些條約、協定和其他建設性安排。

2. 本《宣言》的任何內容都不得解釋為削弱或取消這種條約、協定和其他建設性安排所規定的原住民族權利。

 

第 38 條
各國應與原住民族協商和合作,採取適當措施,包括採取立法措施,以實現本《宣言》的目標。

 

第 39 條
原住民族有權從各國和通過國際合作獲得財政和技術援助,以享受本《宣言》所規定的權利。

 

第 40 條
原住民族有權借助公正和公平的程式,並通過這些程式迅速獲得裁決,解決同各國或其他當事方的衝突或爭端,並就其個人和集體權利所受到的一切侵犯獲得有效的補償。這種裁決應適當地考慮到有關的原住民族的習俗、傳統、規則和法律制度以及國際人權。

 

第 41 條
聯合國系統各機關和專門機構及其他政府間組織,應通過推動財務合作和技術援助及其他方式,為充分落實本《宣言》的規定作出貢獻。應制定途徑和方法,確保原住民族參與處理影響到他們的問題。

 

第 42 條
聯合國、聯合國的機構(包括原住民族問題常設論壇)、各專門機構(包括在國家一級)以及各國,應促進對本《宣言》各項規定的尊重和充分實施,並跟蹤檢查本《宣言》的實施效果。

 

第 43 條
本《宣言》所確認的權利,為全世界原住民族求生存、維護尊嚴和謀求幸福的最低標準。

 

第 44 條
原住民不分男女,都平等享有享受本《宣言》所確認的所有權利和自由的保障。

 

第 45 條
本《宣言》的任何內容都不得理解為削弱或取消原住民族現在享有或將來可能獲得的權利。

 

第 46 條
1. 本《宣言》的任何內容都不得解釋為暗指任何國家、民族、團體或個人有權從事任何違背《聯合國憲章》的活動或行為,也不得理解為認可或鼓勵任何全部或局部分割或損害主權和獨立國家的領土完整或政治統一的行動。

2. 在行使本《宣言》所宣示的權利時,應尊重所有人的人權和基本自由。本《宣言》所列各種權利的行使,應只受限於由法律規定的限制,並應符合國際人權義務。任何此種限制不應帶有歧視性,而且絕對是必需的,完全是為了確保其他人的權利與自由得到應有的承認與尊重,滿足民主社會公正和最緊要的需要。

3. 應依照公正、民主、尊重人權、平等、不歧視、善政(good governance)和誠意的原則,來解釋本《宣言》各項規定。

 

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

Adopted by General Assembly Resolution 61/295 on 13 September 2007

The General Assembly,
Guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and good faith in the fulfilment of the obligations assumed by States in accordance with the Charter,

Affirming that indigenous peoples are equal to all other peoples, while recognizing the right of all peoples to be different, to consider themselves different, and to be respected as such,

Affirming also that all peoples contribute to the diversity and richness of civilizations and cultures, which constitute the common heritage of humankind,

Affirming further that all doctrines, policies and practices based on or advocating superiority of peoples or individuals on the basis of national origin or racial, religious, ethnic or cultural differences are racist, scientifically false, legally invalid, morally condemnable and socially unjust,

Reaffirming that indigenous peoples, in the exercise of their rights, should be free from discrimination of any kind,

Concerned that indigenous peoples have suffered from historic injustices as a result of, inter alia, their colonization and dispossession of their lands, territories and resources, thus preventing them from exercising, in particular, their right to development in accordance with their own needs and interests,

Recognizing the urgent need to respect and promote the inherent rights of indigenous peoples which derive from their political, economic and social structures and from their cultures, spiritual traditions, histories and philosophies, especially their rights to their lands, territories and resources,

Recognizing also the urgent need to respect and promote the rights of indigenous peoples affirmed in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements with States,

Welcoming the fact that indigenous peoples are organizing themselves for political, economic, social and cultural enhancement and in order to bring to an end all forms of discrimination and oppression wherever they occur,

Convinced that control by indigenous peoples over developments affecting them and their lands, territories and resources will enable them to maintain and strengthen their institutions, cultures and traditions, and to promote their development in accordance with their aspirations and needs,

Recognizing that respect for indigenous knowledge, cultures and traditional practices contributes to sustainable and equitable development and proper management of the environment,

Emphasizing the contribution of the demilitarization of the lands and territories of indigenous peoples to peace, economic and social progress and development, understanding and friendly relations among nations and peoples of the world,

Recognizing in particular the right of indigenous families and communities to retain shared responsibility for the upbringing, training, education and well-being of their children, consistent with the rights of the child,

Considering that the rights affirmed in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements between States and indigenous peoples are, in some situations, matters of international concern, interest, responsibility and character,

Considering also that treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements, and the relationship they represent, are the basis for a strengthened partnership between indigenous peoples and States,

Acknowledging that the Charter of the United Nations, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,2 as well as the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, affirm the fundamental importance of the right to self-determination of all peoples, by virtue of which they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development,

Bearing in mind that nothing in this Declaration may be used to deny any peoples their right to self-determination, exercised in conformity with international law,

Convinced that the recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples in this Declaration will enhance harmonious and cooperative relations between the State and indigenous peoples, based on principles of justice, democracy, respect for human rights, non-discrimination and good faith,

Encouraging States to comply with and effectively implement all their obligations as they apply to indigenous peoples under international instruments, in particular those related to human rights, in consultation and cooperation with the peoples concerned,

Emphasizing that the United Nations has an important and continuing role to play in promoting and protecting the rights of indigenous peoples,

Believing that this Declaration is a further important step forward for the recognition, promotion and protection of the rights and freedoms of indigenous peoples and in the development of relevant activities of the United Nations system in this field,

Recognizing and reaffirming that indigenous individuals are entitled without discrimination to all human rights recognized in international law, and that indigenous peoples possess collective rights which are indispensable for their existence, well-being and integral development as peoples,

Recognizing that the situation of indigenous peoples varies from region to region and from country to country and that the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical and cultural backgrounds should be taken into consideration,

Solemnly proclaims the following United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as a standard of achievement to be pursued in a spirit of partnership and mutual respect:

Article 1
Indigenous peoples have the right to the full enjoyment, as a collective or as individuals, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognized in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international human rights law.

Article 2
Indigenous peoples and individuals are free and equal to all other peoples and individuals and have the right to be free from any kind of discrimination, in the exercise of their rights, in particular that based on their indigenous origin or identity.

Article 3
Indigenous peoples have the right to self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

Article 4
Indigenous peoples, in exercising their right to self-determination, have the right to autonomy or self-government in matters relating to their internal and local affairs, as well as ways and means for financing their autonomous functions.

Article 5
Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and strengthen their distinct political, legal, economic, social and cultural institutions, while retaining their right to participate fully, if they so choose, in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the State.

Article 6
Every indigenous individual has the right to a nationality.

Article 7
1. Indigenous individuals have the rights to life, physical and mental integrity, liberty and security of person.

2. Indigenous peoples have the collective right to live in freedom, peace and security as distinct peoples and shall not be subjected to any act of genocide or any other act of violence, including forcibly removing children of the group to another group.

Article 8
1. Indigenous peoples and individuals have the right not to be subjected to forced assimilation or destruction of their culture.

2. States shall provide effective mechanisms for prevention of, and redress for:
(a) Any action which has the aim or effect of depriving them of their integrity as distinct peoples, or of their cultural values or ethnic identities;
(b) Any action which has the aim or effect of dispossessing them of their lands, territories or resources;
(c) Any form of forced population transfer which has the aim or effect of violating or undermining any of their rights;
(d) Any form of forced assimilation or integration;
(e) Any form of propaganda designed to promote or incite racial or ethnic discrimination directed against them.

Article 9
Indigenous peoples and individuals have the right to belong to an indigenous community or nation, in accordance with the traditions and customs of the community or nation concerned. No discrimination of any kind may arise from the exercise of such a right.

Article 10
Indigenous peoples shall not be forcibly removed from their lands or territories. No relocation shall take place without the free, prior and informed consent of the indigenous peoples concerned and after agreement on just and fair compensation and, where possible, with the option of return.

Article 11
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to practise and revitalize their cultural traditions and customs. This includes the right to maintain, protect and develop the past, present and future manifestations of their cultures, such as archaeological and historical sites, artefacts, designs, ceremonies, technologies and visual and performing arts and literature.

2. States shall provide redress through effective mechanisms, which may include restitution, developed in conjunction with indigenous peoples, with respect to their cultural, intellectual, religious and spiritual property taken without their free, prior and informed consent or in violation of their laws, traditions and customs.

Article 12
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to manifest, practise, develop and teach their spiritual and religious traditions, customs and ceremonies; the right to maintain, protect, and have access in privacy to their religious and cultural sites; the right to the use and control of their ceremonial objects; and the right to the repatriation of their human remains.

2. States shall seek to enable the access and/or repatriation of ceremonial objects and human remains in their possession through fair, transparent and effective mechanisms developed in conjunction with indigenous peoples concerned.

Article 13
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to revitalize, use, develop and transmit to future generations their histories, languages, oral traditions, philosophies, writing systems and literatures, and to designate and retain their own names for communities, places and persons.

2. States shall take effective measures to ensure that this right is protected and also to ensure that indigenous peoples can understand and be understood in political, legal and administrative proceedings, where necessary through the provision of interpretation or by other appropriate means.

Article 14
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to establish and control their educational systems and institutions providing education in their own languages, in a manner appropriate to their cultural methods of teaching and learning.

2. Indigenous individuals, particularly children, have the right to all levels and forms of education of the State without discrimination.

3. States shall, in conjunction with indigenous peoples, take effective measures, in order for indigenous individuals, particularly children, including those living outside their communities, to have access, when possible, to an education in their own culture and provided in their own language.

Article 15
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the dignity and diversity of their cultures, traditions, histories and aspirations which shall be appropriately reflected in education and public information.

2. States shall take effective measures, in consultation and cooperation with the indigenous peoples concerned, to combat prejudice and eliminate discrimination and to promote tolerance, understanding and good relations among indigenous peoples and all other segments of society.

Article 16
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to establish their own media in their own languages and to have access to all forms of non-indigenous media without discrimination.

2. States shall take effective measures to ensure that State-owned media duly reflect indigenous cultural diversity. States, without prejudice to ensuring full freedom of expression, should encourage privately owned media to adequately reflect indigenous cultural diversity.

Article 17
1. Indigenous individuals and peoples have the right to enjoy fully all rights established under applicable international and domestic labour law.

2. States shall in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples take specific measures to protect indigenous children from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development, taking into account their special vulnerability and the importance of education for their empowerment.

3. Indigenous individuals have the right not to be subjected to any discriminatory conditions of labour and, inter alia, employment or salary.

Article 18
Indigenous peoples have the right to participate in decision-making in matters which would affect their rights, through representatives chosen by themselves in accordance with their own procedures, as well as to maintain and develop their own indigenous decision-making institutions.

Article 19
States shall consult and cooperate in good faith with the indigenous peoples concerned through their own representative institutions in order to obtain their free, prior and informed consent before adopting and implementing legislative or administrative measures that may affect them.

Article 20
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and develop their political, economic and social systems or institutions, to be secure in the enjoyment of their own means of subsistence and development, and to engage freely in all their traditional and other economic activities.

2. Indigenous peoples deprived of their means of subsistence and development are entitled to just and fair redress.

Article 21
1. Indigenous peoples have the right, without discrimination, to the improvement of their economic and social conditions, including, inter alia, in the areas of education, employment, vocational training and retraining, housing, sanitation, health and social security.

2. States shall take effective measures and, where appropriate, special measures to ensure continuing improvement of their economic and social conditions. Particular attention shall be paid to the rights and special needs of indigenous elders, women, youth, children and persons with disabilities.

Article 22
1. Particular attention shall be paid to the rights and special needs of indigenous elders, women, youth, children and persons with disabilities in the implementation of this Declaration.

2. States shall take measures, in conjunction with indigenous peoples, to ensure that indigenous women and children enjoy the full protection and guarantees against all forms of violence and discrimination.

Article 23
Indigenous peoples have the right to determine and develop priorities and strategies for exercising their right to development. In particular, indigenous peoples have the right to be actively involved in developing and determining health, housing and other economic and social programmes affecting them and, as far as possible, to administer such programmes through their own institutions.

Article 24
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to their traditional medicines and to maintain their health practices, including the conservation of their vital medicinal plants, animals and minerals. Indigenous individuals also have the right to access, without any discrimination, to all social and health services.

2. Indigenous individuals have an equal right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. States shall take the necessary steps with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of this right.

Article 25
Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and strengthen their distinctive spiritual relationship with their traditionally owned or otherwise occupied and used lands, territories, waters and coastal seas and other resources and to uphold their responsibilities to future generations in this regard.

Article 26
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned, occupied or otherwise used or acquired.

2. Indigenous peoples have the right to own, use, develop and control the lands, territories and resources that they possess by reason of traditional ownership or other traditional occupation or use, as well as those which they have otherwise acquired.

3. States shall give legal recognition and protection to these lands, territories and resources. Such recognition shall be conducted with due respect to the customs, traditions and land tenure systems of the indigenous peoples concerned.

Article 27
States shall establish and implement, in conjunction with indigenous peoples concerned, a fair, independent, impartial, open and transparent process, giving due recognition to indigenous peoples’ laws, traditions, customs and land tenure systems, to recognize and adjudicate the rights of indigenous peoples pertaining to their lands, territories and resources, including those which were traditionally owned or otherwise occupied or used. Indigenous peoples shall have the right to participate in this process.

Article 28
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to redress, by means that can include restitution or, when this is not possible, just, fair and equitable compensation, for the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned or otherwise occupied or used, and which have been confiscated, taken, occupied, used or damaged without their free, prior and informed consent.

2. Unless otherwise freely agreed upon by the peoples concerned, compensation shall take the form of lands, territories and resources equal in quality, size and legal status or of monetary compensation or other appropriate redress.

Article 29
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the conservation and protection of the environment and the productive capacity of their lands or territories and resources. States shall establish and implement assistance programmes for indigenous peoples for such conservation and protection, without discrimination.

2. States shall take effective measures to ensure that no storage or disposal of hazardous materials shall take place in the lands or territories of indigenous peoples without their free, prior and informed consent.

3. States shall also take effective measures to ensure, as needed, that programmes for monitoring, maintaining and restoring the health of indigenous peoples, as developed and implemented by the peoples affected by such materials, are duly implemented.

Article 30
1. Military activities shall not take place in the lands or territories of indigenous peoples, unless justified by a relevant public interest or otherwise freely agreed with or requested by the indigenous peoples concerned.

2. States shall undertake effective consultations with the indigenous peoples concerned, through appropriate procedures and in particular through their representative institutions, prior to using their lands or territories for military activities.

Article 31
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, as well as the manifestations of their sciences, technologies and cultures, including human and genetic resources, seeds, medicines, knowledge of the properties of fauna and flora, oral traditions, literatures, designs, sports and traditional games and visual and performing arts. They also have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their intellectual property over such cultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and traditional cultural expressions.

2. In conjunction with indigenous peoples, States shall take effective measures to recognize and protect the exercise of these rights.

Article 32
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to determine and develop priorities and strategies for the development or use of their lands or territories and other resources.

2. States shall consult and cooperate in good faith with the indigenous peoples concerned through their own representative institutions in order to obtain their free and informed consent prior to the approval of any project affecting their lands or territories and other resources, particularly in connection with the development, utilization or exploitation of mineral, water or other resources.

3. States shall provide effective mechanisms for just and fair redress for any such activities, and appropriate measures shall be taken to mitigate adverse environmental, economic, social, cultural or spiritual impact.

Article 33
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to determine their own identity or membership in accordance with their customs and traditions. This does not impair the right of indigenous individuals to obtain citizenship of the States in which they live.

2. Indigenous peoples have the right to determine the structures and to select the membership of their institutions in accordance with their own procedures.

Article 34
Indigenous peoples have the right to promote, develop and maintain their institutional structures and their distinctive customs, spirituality, traditions, procedures, practices and, in the cases where they exist, juridical systems or customs, in accordance with international human rights standards.

Article 35
Indigenous peoples have the right to determine the responsibilities of individuals to their communities.

Article 36
1. Indigenous peoples, in particular those divided by international borders, have the right to maintain and develop contacts, relations and cooperation, including activities for spiritual, cultural, political, economic and social purposes, with their own members as well as other peoples across borders.

2. States, in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples, shall take effective measures to facilitate the exercise and ensure the implementation of this right.

Article 37
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the recognition, observance and enforcement of treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements concluded with States or their successors and to have States honour and respect such treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements.

2. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as diminishing or eliminating the rights of indigenous peoples contained in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements.

Article 38
States in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples, shall take the appropriate measures, including legislative measures, to achieve the ends of this Declaration.

Article 39
Indigenous peoples have the right to have access to financial and technical assistance from States and through international cooperation, for the enjoyment of the rights contained in this Declaration.

Article 40
Indigenous peoples have the right to access to and prompt decision through just and fair procedures for the resolution of conflicts and disputes with States or other parties, as well as to effective remedies for all infringements of their individual and collective rights. Such a decision shall give due consideration to the customs, traditions, rules and legal systems of the indigenous peoples concerned and international human rights.

Article 41
The organs and specialized agencies of the United Nations system and other intergovernmental organizations shall contribute to the full realization of the provisions of this Declaration through the mobilization, inter alia, of financial cooperation and technical assistance. Ways and means of ensuring participation of indigenous peoples on issues affecting them shall be established.

Article 42
The United Nations, its bodies, including the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, and specialized agencies, including at the country level, and States shall promote respect for and full application of the provisions of this Declaration and follow up the effectiveness of this Declaration.

Article 43
The rights recognized herein constitute the minimum standards for the survival, dignity and well-being of the indigenous peoples of the world.

Article 44
All the rights and freedoms recognized herein are equally guaranteed to male and female indigenous individuals.

Article 45
Nothing in this Declaration may be construed as diminishing or extinguishing the rights indigenous peoples have now or may acquire in the future.

Article 46
1. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, people, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act contrary to the Charter of the United Nations or construed as authorizing or encouraging any action which would dismember or impair, totally or in part, the territorial integrity or political unity of sovereign and independent States.

2. In the exercise of the rights enunciated in the present Declaration, human rights and fundamental freedoms of all shall be respected. The exercise of the rights set forth in this Declaration shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law and in accordance with international human rights obligations. Any such limitations shall be non-discriminatory and strictly necessary solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for meeting the just and most compelling requirements of a democratic society.

3. The provisions set forth in this Declaration shall be interpreted in accordance with the principles of justice, democracy, respect for human rights, equality, non-discrimination, good governance and good faith.

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