UA 165/08 埃及 - 強迫遣返/刑求或虐待之虞

聲援對象︰近1400位厄利垂亞尋求庇護者
最新消息:暫停聲援行動
發佈日期:2008年8月7日

最新消息

約近1200位厄利垂亞籍尋求庇護者已於6月12日至19日之間被強制遣返厄利垂亞。根據來自厄利垂亞的報導,被遣返者之中,大部分的男性和某些單身女性一直被拘留在偏遠、乾燥的We'a地區軍事訓練營區;帶著孩子或懷有身孕的女性,則在拘留數週後獲釋。

埃及沒有公佈被遣返者的精確人數。根據國際特赦組織所取得的消息,6月12日、13日和14日的清晨,共有大約425人,分乘三架埃及航空專機,由埃及亞斯旺國際機場(Aswan International Airport)被送到厄利垂亞的馬薩瓦(Massawa)軍事基地。此外,6月18日有400人、6月19日有380人,由開羅機場被遣送厄利垂亞。據報6月15日還有其它的遣送班機。

大約130位厄利垂亞尋求庇護者,仍然和49位衣索比亞人一起,被拘押在埃及南部亞斯旺市的夏洛(Shallal)中央安全部隊營區。在國際特赦組織等團體發出聲援之後,埃及於6月15日宣佈准許聯合國難民事務高級專員(UNHCR)駐埃人員探視這批尋求庇護者。在UNHCR探視過後,有179人獲准申請難民地位,他們的申請正由埃及當局審核中。UNHCR尚未獲准探視埃及境內任何其它地方被拘留的厄利垂亞人。

本案目前不需進一步行動。國際特赦組織將以其它方式繼續聲援這群人。感謝所有曾為本案寄出聲援信件的人士。

07 August 2008

Further Information on UA 165/08 (12 June 2008) and follow-up (16 June 2008) - Forcible return/Fear of torture or other ill-treatment

EGYPT Up to 1,200 Eritrean asylum-seekers

Up to 1,200 Eritrean asylum-seekers were forcibly returned to Eritrea between 12 and 19 June. Reports from Eritrea indicate that most of the men who were returned and some of the single women have been detained in military training camps in the remote and dry area of We’a. The returned women with children and those who were pregnant are believed to have been released after some weeks in detention.

Egypt has not disclosed exactly how many people were forcibly returned. According to information available to Amnesty International, about 425 were deported from Aswan International Airport on three special Egypt Air flights in the early hours of 12 June, 13 June and 14 June to Massawa military base. Another 400 were deported to Eritrea from Cairo airport on 18 June and 380 others on 19 June also from Cairo airport. Other flights were also reported on 15 June.

About 130 Eritrean asylum-seekers are still held at Shallal central security forces camp in Aswan, southern Egypt, in addition to 49 Ethiopians. Following appeals from Amnesty International and others, on 15 June Egypt announced that the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Egypt would be granted access to all asylum-seekers. Following the UNHCR's visit to Shallal camp, the 179 were able to apply for refugee status and their applications are now pending decisions from the Egyptian authorities. UNHCR does not have access to any Eritreans in other places of detention across Egypt.

No further action is requested. Amnesty International will continue to campaign for this group of people through other means, including Urgent Actions. Many thanks to those who sent appeals.

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UA 165/08 埃及 - 強迫遣返/刑求或虐待之虞

發佈日期:2008年6月12日
聲援對象︰近1400位厄利垂亞尋求庇護者

埃及當局於6月11日強制遣返一批約兩百人的厄利垂亞尋求庇護者,並預備再強制遣返一千四百人。在厄利垂亞,他們可能遭到酷刑和虐待。儘管數度請求,駐埃及的聯合國難民總署尚未准許任何厄利垂亞人申請難民身分。當局顯然已經備妥數班飛往厄利垂亞的班機。

一批169位厄利垂亞尋求庇護者可能在6月12日晚間被遣返。他們從拘禁的亞斯旺市附近的Nasr al Nuba警局被移走到亞斯旺南部夏洛(Shallal)中央安全部隊營區。數百名厄利垂亞尋求庇護者被拘禁在亞斯旺市附近的警察局。另外數十人被關在開羅附近的Al -Qanater監獄。大約七百人關在紅海附近的城市Hurghada和Marsa Alam。被關在亞斯旺的尋求庇護者所委任的律師相信,其中被關在Hurghada的兩百人,現已被移送到亞斯旺,準備強迫遣返。

6月11日被遣送的200位尋求庇護者原先被關在亞斯旺市的Shallal中央安全部隊營區。他們被告知將被移送到開羅的聯合國難民總署辦事處。當晚他們的律師想要連絡他們,拿食物和藥物給他們,但無法接近他們。這些厄利垂亞人於是被帶到亞斯旺國際機場,送上埃及航空的專機飛往厄利垂亞。

大多數尋求庇護者回到厄利垂亞很可能遭到任意隔離監禁,面對數週到數年非人道的待遇。他們極可能遭到刑求或虐待,尤其是逃避義務兵役者。

從二月底,大批的厄利垂亞尋求庇護者從南部蘇丹邊境或渡海從Hurghada市南部湧進埃及。有些人在蘇丹時得到聯合國難民總署認可為難民,他們逃離蘇丹,以避免被蘇丹當局強迫遣返回厄利垂亞。

在亞斯旺的數百名厄利垂亞尋求庇護者被控非法進入埃及,被判一個月緩刑徒刑。然而內政部以埃及的戒嚴法下令將他們行政拘留。

背景資料

聯合國難民總署曾對各國政府發佈一項準則,基於厄利垂亞嚴重違反人權的記錄,反對將尋求庇護遭拒的厄利垂亞人士遣返厄利垂亞。這項準則依然有效。

被遣返厄利垂亞的難民及尋求庇護者,會遭到隔離監禁和刑求。5月14日德國當局遣返的兩名尋求庇護者回到厄利垂亞後,立刻被捕,至今不見蹤影。另一名於2007年11月遭英國遣返的尋求庇護者被拘禁在非人道的情況裡,在獲釋之前,飽受虐待。

成千上萬的人在厄利垂亞遭到祕密無限期的隔離監禁,未被起訴或審判。他們被禁的原因有︰被疑反對政府、宗教信仰屬於被查禁的福音教派或其他教會的成員、逃避徵兵或想逃離家園。

所有18歲至40歲的男女都要義務服兵役,役期沒有限定。因宗教信仰而拒服兵役的「良心反對者」無法豁免,也沒有替代兵役的方案。一般懲處逃兵役的方法就是監禁和酷刑。

建議寫信內容︰請儘快於2008年7月24日前將信件寄出。
■ 呼籲埃及當局立刻停止強制遣送尋求庇護者回到厄利垂亞。
■ 請求當局尊重埃及對《1951年難民公約》和《聯合國反酷刑公約》的國際義務,不要強迫遣返尋求庇護者回到厄利垂亞,他們在那裡恐遭刑求和其他嚴重的人權迫害。
■ 請求他們保證所有厄利垂亞尋求庇護者能立刻連絡駐埃及聯合國難民總署,申請尋求庇護。

信件請寄:

內政部長:
Minister Habib Ibrahim El Adly
Ministry of the Interior
25 Al-Sheikh Rihan Street
Bab al-Louk, Cairo, Egypt
傳真︰+20 2 279 0682
Email: moi@idsc.gov.eg
稱謂︰部長鈞鑒︰/Salutation: Dear Minister

副本請寄︰

外交部:
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Minister Ahmed Ali Aboul Gheit
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Corniche al-Nil, Maspiro
Cairo, Egypt
傳真︰ +20 22 574 8822、+20 22 390 8159、+20 22 574 9533
E-mail: minexter@idsc1.gov.eg
稱謂︰部長鈞鑒︰/Salutation: Dear Minister

國家人權委員會:
Ambassador Mokhless Kotb
Secretary General
National Council for Human Rights
1113 Corniche El Nil
Midane Al Tahrir
Specialized National Councils Building – 11th floor
NDP Building, Cairo, Egypt
傳真︰ +202 2574 7497
Email: nchr@nchr.org.eg

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AI Index: MDE 12/011/2008

12 June 2008
Forcible return/Fear of torture or other ill-treatment

EGYPT Up to 1,400 asylum seekers from Eritrea

The Egyptian authorities forcibly returned a group of around 200 asylum-seekers to Eritrea in the night of 11 June, and are preparing to forcibly return a further 1,400. In Eritrea they will be at risk of torture and other ill-treatment. The office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Egypt has not been granted access to any of the Eritreans to assess their asylum claims, despite repeated requests. The authorities appear to have scheduled a number of special flights to Eritrea.

A group of 169 Eritrean asylum-seekers could be returned as early as the evening of 12 June: they were moved from Nasr al Nuba police station near Aswan city, where they had been detained, to Central Security Forces camp in Shallal, south of Aswan. Hundreds of Eritrean asylum-seekers are detained in several police stations near Aswan city. Dozens of others are detained in Al-Qanater prison near the capital, Cairo. Around 700 are detained near the Red Sea cities of Hurghada and Marsa Alam. Lawyers representing the asylum-seekers held in Aswan believe that 200 of those held in Hurghada are being transported to Aswan, in preparation for forcible return.

The 200 asylum-seekers deported on 11 June had been detained in a Central security forces camp in Shallal in Aswan city. They were told they would be transported to the UNHCR office in Cairo. Their lawyers tried to reach them the same evening to offer medication and food but could not get to them. The Eritreans were then taken to Aswan International airport and put on a special EgyptAir flight to Eritrea.

Most asylum-seekers returned to Eritrea are likely to be arbitrarily detained incommunicado in inhumane conditions from weeks to years. They will be at serious risk of torture or other ill-treatment, particularly those who have fled from compulsory military service.

Since the end of February, flows of Eritrean asylum-seekers have reached Egypt either via its southern border with Sudan or by sea, south of the city of Hurghada. Others are recognized as refugees by the UNHCR in Sudan, and are fleeing Sudan to avoid being forcibly returned to Eritrea by the Sudanese authorities.

Hundreds of the Eritrean asylum-seekers in Aswan were charged with illegal entry in Egypt and were sentenced to a suspended one-month prison term. They were however kept in administrative detention by orders of the Ministry of Interior, as granted under the Emergency law in Egypt.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) issued guidelines to all governments opposing return to Eritrea of rejected Eritrean asylum seekers on the grounds of the record of serious human rights violations in Eritrea. These guidelines are still in force.

Refugees and asylum-seekers returned to Eritrea have been detained incommunicado, and tortured. Two asylum-seekers returned to Eritrea by the German authorities on 14 May are believed to have been arrested on arrival, and have not been seen since. Another asylum-seeker returned from the UK in November 2007 was detained in inhumane conditions and ill-treated before being released.

Thousands of people are detained incommunicado in Eritrea, in secret and indefinitely, without charge or trial. They have been arrested for suspected opposition to the government, practicing their religious beliefs as members of banned evangelical or other churches, evading military conscription or trying to flee the country.

Military service is compulsory for all men and women aged 18 to 40. There is no limit on length of service. There is no exemption for conscientious objectors, and no alternative non-military service. The usual punishment for evading military service is detention and torture: this can include having hands and feet tied behind the back in a painful position known as "the helicopter".

RECOMMENDED ACTION: Please send appeals before 24 July 2008.
■ calling on the Egyptian authorities to immediately stop all forcible returns of asylum-seekers to Eritrea;
■ urging them to respect Egypt’s international obligations under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the UN Convention Against Torture not to forcibly return asylum-seekers to Eritrea where they would be at risk of torture and other serious human rights abuses ;
■ asking them to ensure that all Eritrean asylum-seekers are given immediate access to Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees in Egypt to assess their asylum claims.

APPEALS TO:
Minster of Interior
Minister Habib Ibrahim El Adly
Ministry of the Interior
25 Al-Sheikh Rihan Street
Bab al-Louk, Cairo, Egypt
Fax: +20 2 279 0682
Email: moi@idsc.gov.eg
Salutation: Dear Minister

COPIES TO:
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Minister Ahmed Ali Aboul Gheit
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Corniche al-Nil, Maspiro
Cairo, Egypt
Fax: +20 22 574 8822、+20 22 390 8159、+20 22 574 9533
E-mail: minexter@idsc1.gov.eg
Salutation: Dear Minister

National Council for Human Rights
Ambassador Mokhless Kotb
Secretary General
National Council for Human Rights
1113 Corniche El Nil
Midane Al Tahrir
Specialized National Councils Building – 11th floor
NDP Building, Cairo, Egypt
Fax: +202 2574 7497
Email: nchr@nchr.org.eg

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