埃及|示威群眾遭鎮壓

埃及|示威群眾遭鎮壓

個案編號:UA 15/11
聲援對象:埃及示威民眾
聲援期間:2011年1月28日 – 3月11日

抗議貧窮、貪腐、警方暴力和要求總統穆巴拉克下台的埃及人民,可能遭到虐待和任意逮捕。2011年1月25日以來,至少14位示威者遭安全部隊殺害,一千多人被拘留。

這場示威於2011年1月25日在開羅及其他城市爆發,到1月28日的週五祈禱後發展成全國性的抗議活動。在過去四天之中,至少14位示威民眾在安全部隊進行暴力驅散時被殺,傷者不計其數。許多人受傷後,因害怕遭到逮捕而不敢去醫院接受治療。

埃及當地律師及人權團體指出,已有一千多位示威者被安全部隊逮捕。其中許多人在被捕過程中和送入拘留所後,遭到鎮暴警察與情治人員多次毆打。政府當局沒收他們的手機,不給傷者適當的醫護,而且禁止他們與律師聯絡。

當局為了稼禍給地下組織「穆斯林兄弟會(Muslim Brotherhood)」,逮捕了它的全國理事會八名成員(包括Eissam Aryan和Mohamed Mursi),以及各地分會至少二十名資深工作人員。這個組織和「國民革新會(National Association for Change)」、「四六運動(6 April Movement)」都被內政部指控為抗議活動的幕後黑手。「國民革新會」的主席、前國際原子能總署署長Mohamed El Baradei被當局軟禁在家,不准他參加1月28日的示威遊行。這個組織也有多名成員被捕。

2011年1月27日,檢察官宣佈起訴部分被捕人士後,准許他們辦理保釋。他們被控的罪名包括非法集會、妨礙公務、損毁公共財物和擾亂交通。其他人仍被羈押,預期將於近日接受檢方訊問。埃及當局經常使用這些罪名來限制集會自由,導致埃及人民和平集會的權利無法實現。

請立刻寫信表達以下訴求(可用英文、阿拉伯文或母語):
- 呼籲埃及有關當局約束軍警部隊,明令禁止濫用武力,唯有在保護生命所必要的情況下才能使用槍械,而且必須遵守聯合國《執法人員行為準則》和《執法人員使用武力與槍械的基本原則》;
- 要求他們保障遊行示威者的人權;
- 呼籲他們調查安全部隊驅散示威群眾過程中所發生的死亡和虐待案件;
- 呼籲當局將被拘留的民眾釋放,或者依照國際公認的罪名將他們起訴,並且確保他們獲得公正的審判。

寄信對象:

[ 埃及內政部長 ]
Habib Ibrahim El Adly
Ministry of Interior
25 El Sheikh Rihan Street
Bab al-Louk, Cairo, Egypt.
Fax: +20 22 796 0682
Email: moi@idsc.gov.eg
稱謂: 部長閣下 / Dear Minister

[ 埃及檢察總長 ]
Abd El-Megeed Mahmoud
Dar al-Qadha al-‘Ali
Ramses Street, Cairo, Egypt
Fax: +20 22 577 4716
稱謂: 親愛的檢察總長 / Dear Counsellor

請寄附件給:
[ 埃及外交部人權事務副部長 ]
Laila Bahaa Eldin
Human Rights and International Humanitarian and Social Affairs
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Corniche al-Nil, Cairo, Egypt
Fax: +20 22 574 9713

背景說明

埃及政府自1981年宣佈國家進入「緊急狀態」,至今仍未解除。當局經常引用《緊急狀態法》的條文侵犯人權,包括禁止示威遊行,限制言論、集會、結社自由,刑求虐待,以軍事法庭和緊急狀態特別法庭剝奪人民獲得公正審判的權利等等。

近年來,私營和公營企業勞工曾數次發動抗爭和未經核准的罷工,以爭取薪資和其他勞動條件的改善。還有許多人在開羅的政府機關門前靜坐陳情。政府有時會派安全部隊驅散這些示威民眾,並且禁止媒體工作者接近採訪這些陳情者或示威活動。

關於埃及限制言論、集會、結社自由的詳情,請見AI調查報告:《Egypt: 'Shouting slogans into the wind': Human rights concerns ahead of the parliamentary elections》 (2010年11月21日發表,Index: MDE 12/032/2010)
下載網址:http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/MDE12/032/2010/en

[ ENGLISH ]

URGENT ACTION

Egyptian protestors at risk of abuse

Egyptians protesting against poverty, corruption and police abuse and calling for the end of President Hosni Mubarak’s rule are at risk of abuse and arbitrary arrest. Since 25 January 2011, at least 14 protestors have been killed by security forces and over a thousand people detained.

Protests began in Cairo and other cities in Egypt on 25 January 2011, culminating in nationwide protests on 28 January after Friday prayers. In the last four days, at least 14 people have been killed in demonstrations which have been forcibly dispersed by the security forces Scores of others have been injured. Many of those injured did not go to hospital for treatment for fear of being arrested.

According to lawyers and human right organizations in Egypt, over a thousand protestors have been detained by the Egyptian security forces. Many were beaten up by riot police and State Security Investigations officers during their arrest and beaten again once detained at Central Security camps. They had their mobile phones confiscated from them and those injured were denied adequate medical care. They were also denied immediate access to a lawyer.

In an attempt by the Egyptian authorities to scapegoat the Muslim Brotherhood, the authorities have also arrested eight members of the board of the banned organization, including Eissam Aryan and Mohamed Mursi, together with at least 20 senior officials from various governorates. The Ministry of Interior has accused them, together with National Association for Change and 6 April Movement, of stirring up the unrest. Mohamed ElBaradei, former head of the International Atomic Energy Agency and president of the National Association for Change, was prevented from marching on 28 January and ordered to remain at home. Many members of the association were arrested.

On 27 January 2011, the Public Prosecutor ordered the release on bail of some detainees. They have been charged with unauthorized gathering, assault on security forces, damaging public property and disrupting traffic. Others continue to be detained and are expected to appear before the prosecutor in the coming days. These charges have often been used by the authorities to curb freedom of assembly and deny Egyptians the right to peaceful assembly.

PLEASE WRITE IMMEDIATELY in English, Arabic or your own language:
- Calling on the Egyptian authorities to rein in their forces and issue clear instructions that they should not use excessive or disproportionate force or resort to the use of fire arms unless when strictly necessary and to protect human life, in line with the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials and the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials;
- Urging them to uphold the human rights of demonstrators;
- Calling on them to investigate the killings and the abuses by the security forces when policing demonstrations;;
- Calling on the authorities to release or charge those detained with an internationally recognizably offence and try them in fair proceedings.

PLEASE SEND APPEALS BEFORE 11 MARCH 2011 TO:

Minister of Interior
Habib Ibrahim El Adly
Ministry of Interior
25 El Sheikh Rihan Street
Bab al-Louk, Cairo, Egypt.
Fax: +20 22 796 0682
Email: moi@idsc.gov.eg
Salutation: Dear Minister

Prosecutor General
Abd El-Megeed Mahmoud
Dar al-Qadha al-‘Ali
Ramses Street, Cairo, Egypt
Fax: +20 22 577 4716
Salutation: Dear Counsellor

And copies to:
Deputy Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs for Human Rights
Laila Bahaa Eldin
Human Rights and International Humanitarian and Social Affairs
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Corniche al-Nil, Cairo, Egypt
Fax: +20 22 574 9713

Also send copies to diplomatic representatives accredited to your country. Check with your section office if sending appeals after the above date.

Aditional Information

Egypt has been under a state of emergency since 1981 and the authorities have used Emergency Law provisions to ban demonstrations and curb the rights to freedoms of expression, association and assembly as well as commit other human rights violations, including torture and other ill-treatment and unfair trials before military and emergency courts.

Over the last few years, a number of protests and unauthorized strikes took place by public and private sector workers to demand better wages and working conditions. Many have aired their grievances in protests in front of government buildings in Cairo. Some of these demonstrations were dispersed by security forces and media workers were barred or expelled from the areas where the sit-ins and protest were held.

For more information on restrictions on the rights to freedom of expression, association and assembly in Egypt, see Egypt: 'Shouting slogans into the wind': Human rights concerns ahead of the parliamentary elections, (Index: MDE 12/032/2010),

21 November 2010, http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/MDE12/032/2010/en
UA: 15/11 Index: MDE 12/005/2011

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