埃及∣1500家庭面臨強迫搬遷

埃及∣1500家庭面臨強迫搬遷

個案編號: UA 165/10
聲援對象: Al-Sahaby地區居民
聲援期間: 2010年7月28日 - 9月8日

7月25日,埃及亞斯文省(Aswan)中部的Al-Sahaby居民向省政府抱怨有關拆除他們家園的計畫。當局並未事先與受影響的1500戶家庭協商,所提供的替代住所不符合居民的需求,而且離學校和醫療機構甚遠。

6月27日,亞斯文省長發表一項亞斯文「發展」方案,將Al-Sahaby指為「充斥危害居民的臨時建築之危險區域」,需被拆除。省長表示將提供居民320間的替代住所─這些住所位於亞斯文省以南約30公里的Al-Sadaqa Al-Qadima,是每戶僅有一間臥室的窄小平房,且附近缺乏足夠的教育及醫療機構。家園將被拆毀的這些居民認為,政府提供的替代住所不論在空間或機能上都顯然不足。

在宣佈這項拆除計畫之前,亞斯文省政府並未認真地諮詢當地居民的意見。而且,居民至今尚未收到說明相關法律依據的書面文件,使他們難以向法院提出異議。上星期,亞斯文市副市長前往當地會見居民團體時表示,為了都市「發展」,政府決定將他們遷走,但沒有透露何時將開始拆除行動。根據報導,他說如果遭遇居民抵抗,當局將動用強制力執行拆除,並依緊急狀態法將抵抗者處以行政拘留。省政府已開始清查Al-Sahaby戶口,做為拆遷的前置作業。

7月22日,包括許多公務員在內的居民們組成了一個委員會,負責與當局協商,維護居民權益。委員會在7月25日拜會省長秘書,表達反對全面拆遷的立場。他們表示願意支持都市發展的替代方案,例如拓寬道路;並且要求對因此造成的任何損失,給予更好的補償條件。接見的官員證實Al-Sahaby的大部分區域都將被拆除,但答應將居民的要求轉達省長。

請盡速寄信表達下列訴求(可用阿拉伯文、英文或母語):

  • 要求亞斯文省長暫緩搬遷Al-Sahaby居民,並且保證,在履行所有避免強迫搬遷的保護措施,包括發給居民書面的拆遷命令之前,不會執行任何拆遷;
  • 呼籲有關當局認真諮詢Al-Sahaby居民的意見,針對拆遷以及當地的發展計畫,尋求其他替代方案;
  • 要求有關當局提供明確資訊,說明Al-Sahaby地區有哪些建築物可能危害居民的安全。

信件請寄:

[ 亞斯文省長 ]
General Staff Mostafa Al-Sayed
Abtal Al-Tarir Street
Aswan,
Egypt
傳真: +20 972313333
電子信箱: master@aswan.gov.eg or masteraswan@hotmail.com
稱謂: 省長閣下 (Dear Governor of Aswan)
   
[ 非正式住宅發展機構執行長 ]
(Informal Settlement Development Facility Executive Director)
Ali El-Faramawy
3 El-Mokhayam El-Dayem Street
Nasr city, Cairo,
Egypt
傳真: +20 222634000
稱謂: 親愛的Ali El-Farawamy博士 (Dear Dr. Ali El-Farawamy)

背景說明

根據聯合國經濟社會文化權利委員會(UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)的定義,強迫搬遷是指「違反個人、家庭及(或)社區的意志,使之永久或暫時離開原本居住的房屋及(或)土地,而未提供且令其可以取得適當的法律或其他形式的保護。」國際人權標準要求將搬遷作為最後手段,唯有在已經充分考量所有可行之替代方案,並且通過適當程序及法律保護機制之後,才能實施搬遷。必須認真地諮詢受影響居民的意見,在充分合理的時間之前給予通知,提供適足的替代住所並補償所有損失;對於拆遷的執行方式必須有保護機制,及尋求法律救濟的管道,必要時應提供法律援助。拆遷行為不應造成任何人流離失所,或遭受其他人權侵害。埃及有義務遵守國際法的約束,包含《公民與政治權利國際公約》、《經濟社會文化權利國際公約》和《非洲人權與民族權利憲章》,應防止且不得執行任何強迫拆遷。

在Al-Sahaby區的居民之中,有亞斯文水壩的員工,也有律師、老師和大學生。此區位於亞斯文省的中心,居民享有合法的自來水、下水道和電力供應。大多數的建築以磚塊和混凝土構成,少部分則用各種臨時建材搭造。Al-Sahaby區有部分建築是經官方核准建造的,其土地所有權狀態不一。這個住宅區是透過非正式的途徑而形成的,居民們「先占(hand claiming)」該區的空地,並且在上面築屋定居。有些居民主張他們已經合法取得土地所有權,因為根據1957年之前的埃及民法,「先占」空地者只要居住滿15年,即可取得土地所有權。有些居民認為他們「先占」的土地已經合法化,或者因向亞斯文政府支付公定地價而已進入合法化的程序。然而在法律上,透過這種方式合法化的權利,是否可以視同完整的土地所有權而享有不受拆遷的保障,還有待釐清。

在「非正式住宅發展機構(Informal Settlement Development Facility)」認定Al-Sahaby為臨時性建築構成的「危險區域」且危及居民安全後,亞斯文省長於2010年6月27日宣佈,埃及總理決定擬款埃幣3千萬元(約合526萬美元)「發展Al-Sahaby非正式住宅區」。據報導,他也曾表示,Al-Sahaby住宅區造成鄰近的亞斯文市中心觀光區Al-Tabiyah交通擁塞。政府計劃將這片住宅區漆成統一的顏色,以突顯亞斯文的觀光特色及市容的和諧。在Al-Sahaby的各個入口,都掛著政府「發展」計畫的藍圖。根據這張藍圖,Al-Sahaby將被拆除夷平,然後顯然將提供給私人企業進行開發,興建住宅、公共設施和道路。沒有資料顯示此地將被用於公共利益。依據埃及法律,為公共利益而徵收土地,必須遵守一定的程序,包括認定「公共利益」的標準,以及補償的辦法。藉著人權團體「希斯漢姆•穆巴拉克法律中心(Hisham Mubarak Law Centre)」所提供的法律協助,當地居民已分別向亞斯文省長、亞斯文市長、市議會和警察局長請願。請願書內容反對將Al-Sahaby認定為臨時建物構成的非正式住宅區,強調當地多數建物是以水泥和磚塊建成。居民原則上同意為道路拓寬而拆毀部分建築,同時將現有建物加以美化,並將臨時建物就地改建為安全的房屋。他們堅持居民享有建造房屋的合法權利,也可以提出書面文件證明他們擁有土地所有權,不論是透過買賣或先占而取得的。請願者們表示,他們已籌得經費,隨時可依照總理頒佈的行政命令繳納款項,以完成其他建築物的合法化程序。

「非正式住宅發展機構」是政府設立的一個基金,用以統籌所有被認定為「危險區域」之非正式住宅區的發展計劃。它成立於2008年10月,在開羅的Al-Duwayqa發生土石流造成119人喪生之後。「非正式住宅發展機構」已認定埃及全國404處的「危險區域」,其中住有大約85萬居民。亞斯文省境內即有10處「危險區域」。國際特赦組織擔心,這些發展方案若未能於事先認真諮詢相關「危險區域」內居民及社區的意見,將導致強迫拆遷。根據「非正式住宅發展機構」表示,在擬定有關「危險區域」的發展計畫時,只會諮詢當地省政府和市議會的意見。

UA: 165/10 Index: MDE 12/029/2010 Issue Date: 28 July 2010


URGENT ACTION:1,500 FAMILIES AT RISK OF FORCED EVICTIONOn 25 July, residents of Al-Sahaby area in central Aswan, Egypt, complained to the Governorate of Aswan about plans to demolish their homes. The 1,500 affected families have not been consulted about this decision by the authorities and the alternative housing available to them in insufficient for their needs and located far from schools and healthcare facilities.On 27 June, the Governor of Aswan announced a "development" plan for Aswan, which designated Al-Sahaby as an "unsafe area made of makeshift buildings which threaten the residents" which is to be demolished. The Governor said that residents would be offered 320 alternative housing units - these are very small, one-bedroom flats located in Al-Sadaqa Al-Qadima, some 30km south of Aswan. It has poor access to health and education services and the residents whose homes are due to be demolished consider that the alternative housing available to them is both insufficient for their number and inadequate.

The Aswan Governorate failed to conduct any genuine consultations with the residents before announcing their demolition plans and, as yet, residents have received no written notice setting out the legal basis of the decision, so hampering their ability to challenge it before the courts. In the last week, the Vice-President of Aswan city visited the area and met groups of residents and informed them of the decision to “develop” the area and to evict them, but he did not disclose when the evictions are to commence and is reported to have told residents that the authorities will use force to bulldoze the area if the residents resist and that those who do resist could be imprisoned under administrative detention orders issued under the state of emergency law. The Governorate has already conducted a count of the families living in Al-Sahaby, a procedure which normally precedes eviction and relocation.

On 22 July, the residents, many of whom are state employees, formed a committee to negotiate with the authorities and defend the resident's rights. On 25 July, they met with the Secretary of the Governor of Aswan and communicated their opposition to the complete demolition of the area. They said that they would support alternative development plans, including for widening of roads. They also requested better compensation for any losses. The official confirmed that most of Al-Sahaby would be demolished but told them he would communicate their demands to the Governor of Aswan.

PLEASE WRITE IMMEDIATELY in Arabic, English or your own language:

  • Urging the Governor of Aswan to suspend the eviction of the residents of Al-Sahaby area and ensure no eviction is carried out before all safeguards against forced eviction are in place, including official notice to the residents of the eviction order in writing;
  • Calling on the authorities to carry out genuine consultations with the residents of Al-Sahaby area to explore all alternatives to eviction as well as development plans for the area;
  • Provide information on which buildings endanger the lives in Al-Sahaby area.

PLEASE SEND APPEALS BEFORE 08 SEPTEMBER 2010 TO:

Governor of Aswan
General Staff Mostafa Al-Sayed
Abtal Al-Tarir street
Aswan,
Egypt
Fax: +20972313333
Email: master@aswan.gov.eg or masteraswan@hotmail.com
Salutation: Dear Governor of Aswan
   
Informal Settlement Development Facility Executive Director
Ali El-Faramawy
3 El-Mokhayam El-Dayem street
Nasr city, Cairo,
Egypt
Fax: +20222634000
Salutation: Dear Dr. Ali El-Farawamy
   
Also send copies to diplomatic representatives accredited to your country.
Please check with your section office if sending appeals after the above date.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights defines a forced eviction as “the permanent or temporary removal against their will of individuals, families and/or communities from the homes and/or land which they occupy, without the provision of and access to, appropriate forms of legal or other protection.” International human rights standards require that evictions may be carried out only as a last resort, once all other feasible alternatives have been explored and only after appropriate procedural and legal safeguards are in place. These include genuine consultation with the affected people, prior adequate and reasonable notice, adequate alternative housing and compensation for all losses, safeguards on how evictions are carried out, and access to legal remedies and procedures, including access to legal aid where necessary. No one should be rendered homeless or vulnerable to other human rights violations as a consequence of an eviction. Egypt is obliged under international law, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, to refrain from and prevent forced evictions.

Among the residents of Al-Sahaby area are employees working at the Aswan Dam as well as lawyers, teachers and university students. The area is in the centre of Aswan. The residents are officially connected to the water and sewerage networks as well as to the electricity grid. The majority of buildings are made of bricks and concrete and the rest are made of makeshift materials. Al-Sahaby area is partly built with official building authorizations and has mixed forms of land tenure. It grew in an informal way by people ‘hand claiming’ the vacant land and building on it. Some residents claim to have ownership of the titles of the land, because before 1957, the Egyptian Civil Code allowed people who ‘hand claimed’ vacant land to gain its ownership after 15 years of occupation. Some claim they have legalized their ‘hand claim’ or are in the process of legalizing it by paying a set price for the land to the Aswan Governorate. It is unclear, however, if such legalizations prove full legal security of tenure and protection against eviction.

On 27 June 2010, the Governor of Aswan announced that the Prime Minister’s cabinet has allocated 30 million Egyptian pounds (about USD$ 5.26 million) to ‘develop Al-Sahaby informal settlement’ after the Informal Settlement Development Facility (ISDF) designated it as an “unsafe area” made of makeshift buildings which threatens the residents.. He also reportedly said that Al-Sahaby area is located next to Al-Tabiyah, a tourist area in central Aswan, and causes traffic jams. The area is to be repainted in a unified colour to emphasize the touristic character of Aswan and its urban harmony. At different entry points into the area of Al-Sahaby, the Governorate hung maps of the ‘development’ plan. The maps suggest that Al-Sahaby area will be demolished. The empty land would then be mainly used to build new housing, services and roads, apparently by private sector investors. There is no information to indicate that the land will be used for a general public interest, in which case Egyptian law provides for a set of procedures in relation of dispossessing land, including criteria for designating projects as of ‘general interest’ and a process for compensation. The residents sent petitions to the Governor of Aswan, the President of Aswan City, the municipal council and the chief of the police with the help of the Hisham Mubarak Law Center in Aswan, a human rights organization providing legal aid. The petitions oppose the designation of Al-Sahaby area as an informal settlement made of makeshift buildings and stressed that most buildings are actually built with bricks and cement. The residents agree in principle to the demolition of buildings for the purpose of enlarging roads, and to beautify their buildings, and rebuilding makeshift buildings. They insist that residents do possess authorizations to build and have documentation proving their legal tenure of the land, either through ownership, or through legalizing their ‘hand claim’. The petitioners announced that they are ready to settle payments to complete the legalization process of remaining buildings, as per Prime Ministerial decrees.

The ISDF is a fund that coordinates government efforts to deal with informal settlements and develop plans to deal with them, with in priority to “unsafe areas”. It was established in October 2008 following the Al-Duwayqa rockslide in Cairo which killed at least 119 people. ISDF identified 404 “unsafe areas” in Egypt with an estimated 850,000 residents, including 10 “unsafe areas” in Aswan Governorate. Amnesty International fears that plans are being developed without genuine consultations with the residents or communities concerned in these “unsafe areas”, which can lead to forced evictions. According to the ISDF, plans for "unsafe areas" are developed only in consultation with the Governorates and its local municipal councils.

UA: 165/10 Index: MDE 12/029/2010 Issue Date: 28 July 2010

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